In ancient singing, there are ten basic concepts: Graha, Ansha, Nyasa, Apanyas, Alpatva, Bahutva, Shadtatva, Odtatva, Mandra and Taar.
Graha swar/Aarambh swar: The swars with which jaati gaayan starts are known as Graha swar.
Ansha swar: The main (pramukh) swars in jaati gaayan are known as Ansha swar. In jaati gaayan, the prarambhik swars of murchana are called Ansh. These are also termed as Prana swar or Jeevan swar. Normally, Shadaj swar is Prarambhik swar or Ansha swar in murchana. However, sometimes there are more than one Ansha swar in jaati gaayan. They are known as ‘Sthayi swar’ in instrumental music.
Nyasa swar: Nyasa means vishranti or samaapti (rest or conclude). It is the swar in which the prabandh (composition) ends in jaati gaayan. There can be more than one Nyasa swar in a jaati gaayan.
Eg: If in a composition of 8 lines, 4 are sthayi and 4 are the antara, the swar on which the song begins/opens will be termed as Graha swar and those on which it ends will be termed as Nyasa swar. The swar on which the last and concluding line of the sthayi ends is called the Apanyasa swar. The swar on which second line of the song ends is termed as Sanyasa swar.