‘Gharana’ in music means the genealogical tree of the ancestry of one single family of musicians. However now also includes the worthy disciples within its fold.
Now, the word `Gharana’ refers to a particular school of thought or style in music. Each of these styles have characteristic features, peculiarities, trends, forms of compositions, process of elaboration, ornamentation etc. which are passed on directly by the oral tradition from generation to generation.
A Gharana is named after the place where at least three generations of the musician’s family have lived, propounded a distinct style and have consistently propagated it.
Some important Gharanas of Hindustani music with their exponents are:
Haddu Khan, Hassu Khan, Ustad Rehmat Khan, Pt. Balkrishna Bua Ichalkaranjikar Pt. Vishnu Digambar Paluskar, Shankkarrao Pandit and his son Krishnarao Pandit, Pt. Omkarnath Thakur, Pt. Vinayakrao Patwardhan, Pt. Narayanrao Vyas, Pt. D.V. Paluskar.
2. Kirana Gharana
Ustad Abdul Wahid Khan, Ustad Abdul Karim Khan, Roshanara Begum, Ustad Feroze Nizami, Ustad Shakoor Khan, Sawai Gandharva, Gangubai Hangal and Bhimsen Joshi.
3. Agra Gharana
Ustad Natthan Khan, Ustad Fayyaz Khan, Ustad Abdullah Khan, Ustad Vilayat Hussain Khan, Ustad Yunus Hussain Khan.
4. Rampur-Sahaswan Gharana
Originated from Gwalior Gharana, Ustad Inayat Hussain Khan, Ustad Mushtaque Hussain Khan, Ustad Ishtiaq Hussain Khan, Ustad Nissar Hussain Khan.
5. Patiala Gharana
Ustad Ali Baksh and Fateh Ali Khan, Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan.
6. Jaipur Gharana
Ustad Alladiya Khan, Ustad Haider Khan, Ustad Manji Khan, Bhurji Khan, Kesarbai Kerkar, Mogubai Kurdikar, Mallikarjun Mansoor.
7. Atruli Gharana
Ustad Mehboob Khan `Daraspiya’and Ustad Sharafat Hussain Khan.